Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook penne pasta in the boiling water, stirring occasionally, until cooked through but firm to the bite, 8 minutes; drain.
Place artichoke hearts, roasted red pepper, onion, mushrooms, garlic, and basil into a food processor and pulse several times to chop finely.
Heat a large skillet over medium heat. Cook and stir vegetables from food processor in the hot skillet until tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Season the mixture with salt and black pepper.
Pour chicken stock into the pan and bring to a boil while scraping the browned bits of food off of the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon. Reduce heat to low. Stir Alfredo sauce into the artichoke mixture.
Spread cottage cheese into bottom of a casserole dish; pour Alfredo sauce mixture over the cottage cheese. Add penne pasta and stir. Cover casserole dish with aluminum foil.
Bake in preheated oven until bubbly, 20 to 30 minutes.