Heat olive oil in a Dutch oven or large saucepan over medium-high heat. Saute celery, carrot, onion, and garlic in hot oil until fragrant, about 5 minutes.
Stir black beans, chicken broth, orange juice, cayenne pepper, and chili powder with the vegetables in the pot; bring to a boil, reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer until the carrots are soft, about 15 minutes.
Ladle about half the solids into a blender. Add enough liquid so the solids are completely submerged. Hold lid in place and pulse blender a few times before leaving on to puree. Return pureed mixture to pot and stir.