Preheat oven to 450 degrees F (230 degrees C). Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil.
Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add penne pasta and cook until tender yet firm to the bite, 10 to 12 minutes; drain.
Toss squash, zucchini, carrot, red bell pepper, tomatoes, green beans, and asparagus together in a bowl with 2 tablespoons olive oil, salt, pepper, lemon juice, and Italian seasoning. Arrange vegetables on the lined baking sheet.
Roast vegetables in preheated oven until tender, about 15 minutes.
Heat remaining olive oil and butter in a large skillet. Cook onion and garlic in hot oil until tender, 5 to 7 minutes. Mix cooked pasta, lemon zest, basil, parsley, and balsamic vinegar into the onion mixture. Gently toss and cook until heated through, 3 to 5 minutes. Remove from heat and transfer to a large bowl. Toss with roasted vegetables and sprinkle with Romano cheese.