Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil.
Trim roots and stems from beets. Coat beets with 1 tablespoon olive oil and sprinkle with salt and black pepper. Place beets onto prepared baking sheet.
Roast beets for 30 minutes; turn beets over and continue roasting until tender, 30 minutes to 1 hour more. Let beets cool. Peel skins from beets and cut into 1-inch cubes. Toss cooked beets with kale, cashews, dried cherries, and golden raisins in a large salad bowl.
Whisk apple cider, lemon juice, Dijon mustard, garlic, and cider vinegar in a bowl. Slowly drizzle 2 tablespoons olive oil into apple cider mixture, whisking constantly, until dressing is combined. Pour dressing over salad and toss to coat. Refrigerate at least 1 hour for flavors to blend before serving.