Cook and stir turkey in a skillet until browned and crumbly, about 5 minutes. Drain excess grease.
Heat olive oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. Saute corn, celery, onion, and garlic in the hot oil until tender, about 5 minutes. Add ground turkey. Stir in tomatoes, salsa, chicken broth, chili powder, cilantro, cayenne, Creole seasoning, cumin, and oregano. Simmer over medium-low heat until flavors combine, about 30 minutes.
Add beans to the pot and simmer for 15 minutes. Add Cheddar cheese and stir until completely melted.