Fill a large pot with lightly salted water and bring to a rolling boil over high heat. Once the water is boiling, stir in the bow tie pasta and return to a boil. Cook the pasta uncovered, stirring occasionally, until the pasta has cooked through, but is still firm to the bite, about 12 minutes. Drain well in a colander set in the sink.
Melt the butter in a large pot over medium heat. Add the garlic, olive oil, and cabbage; season with salt and pepper; cook until tender, about 15 minutes. Stir in the sausage and bow tie pasta; cook until completely heated, about 5 minutes more. Top with Parmesan cheese and serve immediately.