Mix jalapeno peppers, tomato, green chile peppers, green bell pepper, red bell pepper, onion, hot sauce, and cayenne pepper together in a large bowl.
Cook beef in a large skillet over medium-high heat, stirring to break up clumps, about 5 minutes. Drain excess grease. Add jalapeno pepper mixture and burrito seasoning; cook, covered, stirring occasionally, until flavors combine, about 10 minutes.
Pour refried beans into a saucepan over medium-low heat. Cook and stir until heated through, about 5 minutes.
Warm each tortilla in the microwave until soft, 15 to 20 seconds. Spread a layer of refried beans on top. Divide beef mixture among tortillas. Top with lettuce, sour cream, and Cheddar cheese. Fold in opposing edges of each tortilla and roll up into a burrito.