Fill a large pot with lightly salted water and bring to a rolling boil over high heat. Once the water is boiling, stir in the rotini, and return to a boil. Cook uncovered, stirring occasionally, until the pasta has cooked through, but is still firm to the bite, about 8 minutes. Drain well in a colander set in the sink.
Heat the butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Stir in the onion; cook and stir until the onion has softened and turned translucent, about 5 minutes. Mix in the corn, lime zest, and lime juice. Season with cayenne pepper, salt, and pepper. Continue cooking until corn is warmed through and tender. Toss pasta with the corn mixture and Cheddar cheese. Serve hot, or cover and refrigerate and serve as a cold salad.