Bring a pot of water to a boil. Cook egg noodles in the boiling water, stirring occasionally until tender yet firm to the bite, about 6 minutes. Drain, reserving 1/2 cup cooking water.
Heat olive oil in a 10-inch skillet. Add garlic and capers; cook and stir until fragrant, about 1 minute. Stir in artichoke hearts, lemon juice, and pepper; cook until lemon juice evaporates, about 2 minutes.
Pour wine into the skillet; cook until evaporated, about 3 minutes. Add butter and noodles; toss to combine. Stir in reserved cooking water; cook until sauce coats noodles, about 3 minutes.