Bring a large pot of water to a boil and cook bamboo shoots for 5 minutes. Drain.
Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat and cook curry paste until fragrant, about 2 minutes. Add pork, increase heat and cook until starting to brown, 3 to 5 minutes. Add bamboo shoots, coconut milk, and red bell pepper. Reduce heat and bring to a simmer. Season with sugar and salt; simmer for 10 minutes. Stir in kaffir lime leaves. Cook for 1 more minute. Season with fish sauce. Stir in Thai basil and serve.