Stir white sugar and cinnamon together in a bowl. Combine half the sugar mixture, flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt together in a separate bowl. Cut butter into flour mixture using a pastry blender until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Make a well in the center of the crumbly mixture; add yogurt and raisins to the well. Stir just until dough clings together.
Turn dough onto a lightly floured surface and gently knead 8 to 10 times. Roll dough into 1/2-inch thickness and cut with a 2 1/2-inch biscuit cutter. Arrange biscuits on a baking sheet; sprinkle with remaining sugar mixture.
Bake in the preheated oven until lightly browned, 10 to 12 minutes.
Whisk confectioners' sugar and orange juice together in a bowl until icing is smooth; drizzle over warm biscuits.