Turn on a multi-functional pressure cooker (such as Instant Pot(R)) and select Saute function. Heat olive oil and add onion; cook until translucent, about 7 minutes. Add garlic and cook for 1 minute more.
Combine butternut squash, vegetable broth, brown sugar, salt, ground black pepper, ginger, and curry powder in the pot. Close and lock the lid. Select high pressure according to manufacturer's instructions; set timer for 10 minutes. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for pressure to build.
Release pressure carefully using the quick-release method according to manufacturer's instructions, about 5 minutes. Unlock and remove lid. Blend with an immersion blender until creamy.