Cook and stir ground beef in a skillet over medium heat until meat is crumbly and no longer pink, 5 to 10 minutes. Drain excess grease. Stir in taco seasoning mix and water and simmer until beef mixture has thickened, 8 to 10 minutes.
Set the oven rack about 6 inches from the heat source and preheat the broiler. Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil.
Spread tortilla chips on the prepared baking sheet; top with Cheddar cheese and dot with refried beans and ground beef mixture.
Broil in the preheated oven until cheese is melted, watching carefully to prevent burning, 3 to 5 minutes.
Top nachos with salsa, sour cream, black olives, green onions, and jalapeno peppers.