Beat butter, brown sugar, white sugar, baking soda, and salt together with an electric mixer in a large mixing bowl until creamy and smooth. Beat 1 egg into the butter mixture until completely blended. Add the remaining egg and vanilla together and beat until smooth.
Beat as much of the flour into the butter mixture as you can with the mixer. Use a wooden spoon to stir any remaining flour into the batter.
Mix diced apples, caramels, and cinnamon together in a separate bowl; fold into the batter. Refrigerate batter until chilled, at least 30 minutes.
Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Grease baking sheets.
Drop dough by rounded teaspoonfuls 2 inches apart onto prepared sheets.
Bake in preheated oven until the tops are golden brown, about 8 minutes. Cool cookies on baking sheets for 1 minute before removing to a wire rack to cool completely.