Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Line a roasting pan with aluminum foil.
Whisk butter, maple syrup, salt, and black pepper together in a large bowl. Add squash, turnips, parsnips, sweet potato, rutabaga, and carrots to butter mixture; toss to evenly coat. Pour coated vegetables into the prepared roasting pan.
Bake in the preheated oven until vegetables are tender, about 30 minutes.