Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C).
Pat chicken dry. Combine 1 tablespoon black pepper, garlic powder, paprika, cumin, and 1 teaspoon salt in a bowl. Rub the mixture on the chicken.
Heat a cast iron skillet over high heat. Add peanut oil to the hot skillet and watch it carefully; when oil smokes, add chicken, skin-side down. Cook until browned, about 4 minutes each side. Transfer chicken to a plate; reserve drippings in the skillet.
Melt butter in a small saucepan. Add honey, sriracha sauce, soy sauce, and lime juice. Add remaining black pepper and salt. Bring sauce to a boil; reduce heat and simmer until thickened, about 5 minutes.
Return skillet with drippings to medium-high heat. Add potatoes, carrots, onion, turnip, and garlic. Cook and stir until browned, 5 to 7 minutes. Remove from heat. Add chicken on top of the vegetables, skin-side up. Coat with about a third of the sauce.
Bake in the preheated oven for 10 minutes. Add wine to the skillet and coat chicken with another third of the sauce. Cook until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the meat near the bone reads 165 degrees F (74 degrees C) and vegetables are tender, about 20 minutes. Coat chicken with remaining sauce before serving.