Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease an 8x8-inch baking dish.
Heat a skillet over medium-high heat and stir in ground beef. Cook and stir until the beef is crumbly, evenly browned, and no longer pink. Drain and discard any excess grease.
Stir egg, corn bread mix, sweet corn, cream-style corn, sour cream, and butter in a bowl until well mixed. Fold in ground beef, 1/2 cup Cheddar cheese, and chiles; pour into prepared baking dish.
Bake in the preheated oven for 35 to 40 minutes; sprinkle remaining 2 tablespoons Cheddar cheese on top. Continue baking until a knife inserted into the center comes out clean, 5 to 10 minutes. Serve warm.